Astrazeneca’s Ceftazidime-Avibactam is Effective Against Multi-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria
Astrazeneca (London, UK) brought forward the results of the research on the experimental antibiotic ceftazidime (third-generation cephalosporin) and avibactam (non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor) (CAZ-AVI) carried out on patients suffering from Gram-negative infections that are resistant to ceftazidime.
The announcement was made at the ECCMID (European Congress of Clinical Medicine and Infectious Diseases) 2016 in Amsterdam. These infections mainly occur in hospitalized patients. The research data revealed that CAZ- AVI was effective in treatment of patients with conditions like complicated abdominal Infections (cIAIs) or complicated urinary tract Infections (cUTIs) caused by Gram-negative bacteria like Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Hans Sijbesma, CEO of the Business Unit on antibiotics, AstraZeneca, said: “We are encouraged by these data which demonstrate the potential of CAZ-AVI in the treatment of patients with life-threatening infections where the lack effective treatment options has a critical impact on mortality, morbidity and costs related healthcare”.
Gram-negative bacteria are a class of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining technique. These bacteria have become increasingly resistant to the currently available antibiotics. E. Coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae are some of the most common Gram-negative bacteria and are considered to be responsible for 16% of the 25000 annual deaths in Europe due to antimicrobial resistance. These bacteria have developed resistance even against carbapenems which are a part of the last line of treatment against these bacteria.
CAZ-AVI is a combination of the 3rd generation antibiotic, ceftazidime and avibactam. The Gram-negative bacteria resistance has been attributed in part to the production of β-lactamase enzyme that deactivates the antibiotics. CAZ-AVI acts by using the β-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam, which restores the activity of the co-administered antibiotic, ceftazidime.
The study consisted of one Phase II and three Phase III trials on randomized hospitalized patients who complained of cIAIs and cUTIs or both caused by Gram-negative bacteria resistant to ceftazidime. The following comparison with the traditional treatments was made:
- In cIAI, 200-500 mg of CAZ-AVI was administered every 8 hours as compared to the traditional 1g meropenem and 500g metronidazole.
- In cUTI, 200-500 mg of CAZ-AVI was administered every 8 hours as compared to 200 mg of doripenem.
Investigations concluded that CAZ-AVI was the best available treatment against infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria.